France uses a civil legal system, wherein law arises primarily from written statutes;[97] judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it (though the amount of judicial interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law in a common law system). "Language and Diplomacy – Translation and Interpretation", "Why Is French Considered the Language of Diplomacy? The second half of the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars with Catholics expelling Protestant (Huguenots), which severely weakened the country. Interest. [232] France possesses the Millau Viaduct, the world's tallest bridge,[233] and has built many important bridges such as the Pont de Normandie. Qui est-ce Bobby? [323] Since the 1960s, France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU. Cities affected by this climate: Annecy, Besançon, Bourges, Chambéry, Clermont-Ferrand, Colmar, Dijon, Grenoble, Langres, Metz, Mulhouse, Nancy, Strasbourg. According to a survey held in 2016 by Institut Montaigne and Institut français d'opinion publique (IFOP), 51.1% of the total population of France was Christian, 39.6% had no religion (atheism or agnosticism), 5.6% were Muslims, 2.5% were followers of other faiths, and the remaining 0.4% were undecided about their faith. The tricolour flag of France,[432] the anthem "La Marseillaise", and the motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité, defined in Title 1 of the Constitution as national symbols, all emerged during the cultural ferment of the early revolution, along with Marianne, a common national personification. [229] The Eurostar, along with the Eurotunnel Shuttle, connects with the United Kingdom through the Channel Tunnel. [250][251][252] The European Airbus, formed from the French group Aérospatiale along with DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA), designs and develops civil and military aircraft as well as communications systems, missiles, space rockets, helicopters, satellites, and related systems. Higher education is divided between public universities and the prestigious and selective Grandes écoles, such as Sciences Po Paris for Political studies, HEC Paris for Economics, Polytechnique, the École des hautes études en sciences sociales for Social studies and the École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris that produce high-profile engineers, or the École nationale d'administration for careers in the Grands Corps of the state. Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people. [139] Laws prohibiting discriminatory speech in the press are as old as 1881. [219] It benefits from 300 days of sunshine per year, 115 kilometres (71 mi) of coastline and beaches, 18 golf courses, 14 ski resorts and 3,000 restaurants. [311] Certain groups, such as Scientology, Children of God, the Unification Church, and the Order of the Solar Temple are considered cults ("sectes" in French), and therefore do not have the same status as recognized religions in France. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Since 1999, civil unions for homosexual couples are permitted, and since 2013, same-sex marriage and LGBT adoption are legal. Like the rest of Europe, France was struck by the Black Death; half of the 17 million population of France died. [27] France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux[27] (approximately 18,000 BC). In 1958, the weak and unstable Fourth Republic gave way to the Fifth Republic, which included a strengthened Presidency. France became the most populous country in Europe and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture. Credits; Grants and Awards; Contact; Login; Search form. Members of the Bonaparte family were appointed as monarchs in some of the newly established kingdoms.[67]. Place affected by this climate: Isola 2000. Notice et cote du catalogue de la Bibliothèque nationale de France; Reviews. Décrire la conversation Jacques Cosnier, Catherine Kerbrat-Orecchioni Snippet view - 1987. His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such as the battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz. Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union and the World. Summers are warm and dry, while winters are cool and wet. [32] The Gallic invasion left Rome weakened, and the Gauls continued to harass the region until 345 BC when they entered into a formal peace treaty with Rome. The Albigensian Crusade was launched in 1209 to eliminate the heretical Cathars in the southwestern area of modern-day France. [204] Euronext Paris, the French branch of the NYSE Euronext group is Europe's 2nd largest stock exchange market, behind the London Stock Exchange. The association of France with fashion and style (French: la mode) dates largely to the reign of Louis XIV[407] when the luxury goods industries in France came increasingly under royal control and the French royal court became, arguably, the arbiter of taste and style in Europe. France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to protest the Special Relationship between the United States and Britain and to preserve the independence of French foreign and security policies. His credibility was so deeply undermined that the abolition of the monarchy and establishment of a republic became an increasing possibility. One mayor of the palace, Charles Martel, defeated an Islamic invasion of Gaul at the Battle of Tours (732) and earned respect and power within the Frankish kingdoms. Francisation. Elle vise les sites de caractère artistique, historique, scientifique, légendaire ou pittoresque et dont la qualité appelle, au nom de l’intérêt général, la conservation en l'état et la … Elle a un petit nez 21. France is also the most visited destination in the world,[190][191] as well the European Union's leading agricultural power. 3. France People; France Land; France Language; France Culture; France Food; France History; France Economy; France Politics; Everything French; Links; Jobs; Contact; TCF Structure de la Langue . [97] Charles de Gaulle Airport, located in the vicinity of Paris, is the largest and busiest airport in the country, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic and connecting Paris with virtually all major cities across the world. For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion. 74 pages 1 à 30 Les Grands 4 28 Terms. [372] Important writers of the 20th century include Marcel Proust, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Albert Camus, and Jean-Paul Sartre. The Algerian independence came at a high price; the large toll on the Algerian population. Today, Paris, along with London, Milan, and New York City, is considered one of the world's fashion capitals, and the city is home or headquarters to many of the premier fashion houses. [461], Similar to the Olympics, France introduced Olympics for the deaf people (Deaflympics) in 1924 with the idea of a French deaf car mechanic, Eugène Rubens-Alcais who paved the way to organise the inaugural edition of the Summer Deaflympics in Paris. The most renowned composers of this period include Marc-Antoine Charpentier, François Couperin, Michel-Richard Delalande, Jean-Baptiste Lully and Marin Marais, all of them composers at the court. [298] The dominant position of French language in international affairs was overtaken by English, since the emergence of the United States as a major power.[58][299][300]. [306] Estimates of the number of Muslims in France vary widely. Louis XIV's prime minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded in 1648 the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture to protect these artists, and in 1666 he created the still-active French Academy in Rome to have direct relations with Italian artists. [80][81][82] A vestige of the colonial empire are the French overseas departments and territories. [242] A face transplant was first done on 27 November 2005[243][244] by Dr. Bernard Devauchelle. [301] Through the expansion of public education, in which French was the sole language of instruction, as well as other factors such as increased urbanisation and the rise of mass communication, French gradually came to be adopted by virtually the entire population, a process not completed until the 20th century. Under Louis XIII, the energetic Cardinal Richelieu promoted the centralisation of the state and reinforced the royal power by disarming domestic power holders in the 1620s. [374] Jean-Paul Sartre was also the first nominee in the committee's history to refuse the prize in 1964.[374]. [134] The Assembly has the power to dismiss the government; thus the majority in the Assembly determines the choice of government. Much of the Enlightenment occurred in French intellectual circles, and major scientific breakthroughs and inventions, such as the discovery of oxygen (1778) and the first hot air balloon carrying passengers (1783), were achieved by French scientists. These have been mostly male foreign workers from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed. [216] The most popular tourist sites include (annual visitors): Eiffel Tower (6.2 million), Château de Versailles (2.8 million), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (2 million), Pont du Gard (1.5 million), Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million), Mont Saint-Michel (1 million), Sainte-Chapelle (683,000), Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549,000), Puy de Dôme (500,000), Musée Picasso (441,000), and Carcassonne (362,000). [213] That same year, France sold 33.4 billion euros of transformed agricultural products. In 1905, state secularism was officially established. Merci encore pour cette découverte et la qualité du service. In January 1985, in Mouthe, the temperature has dropped under -41 °C. Deuxième édition de l'étude "Les mots de la France", réalisée du 1er novembre au 19 décembre 2017 auprès de 8 échantillons de 1000 personnes représentatifs de la population de France métropolitaine âgée de 18 ans et plus, interrogés par Internet. Metropolitan France has a wide variety of topographical sets and natural landscapes. The two composers invented new musical forms[379][380][381][382] and new sounds. The plat principal could include a pot au feu or steak frites. Je n'ai pas de mots pour décrire à quel point cette séance à ouvert mon esprit, mes crachas sont booster aux max. The counter-revolution, begun in March 1793 in the Vendée, by July had spread to Brittany, Normandy, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Toulon, and Lyon. Remembered for his numerous wars, he made France the leading European power. It called for the destruction of aristocratic privileges and proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, as well as access to public office based on talent rather than birth. • The alpine tundra climate (ET) is found in all the mountainous regions of France, generally above 2,000 or 2,500 metres a.s.l. The following special units are also part of the Gendarmerie: the Republican Guard (Garde républicaine) which protects public buildings hosting major French institutions, the Maritime Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie maritime) serving as Coast Guard, the Provost Service (Prévôté), acting as the Military Police branch of the Gendarmerie. [309] During the French Revolution, activists conducted a brutal campaign of de-Christianisation, ending the Catholic Church as the state religion. The physical description in french. Directed by André Téchiné. Italian was the official language of Corsica until 9 May 1859.[297]. The new Rafale F3 aircraft will gradually replace all Mirage 2000N and SEM in the nuclear strike role with the improved ASMP-A missile with a nuclear warhead. Mountains affected by this climate: Aiguille du midi, Barre des Écrins, Belledonne, Grand-Casse, Mont Blanc (4,810 m), Pic du Midi de Bigorre. France retains strong political and economic influence in its former African colonies (Françafrique)[165] and has supplied economic aid and troops for peacekeeping missions in Ivory Coast and Chad. [209] Extensive tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and EU subsidies have combined to make France the leading agricultural producer and exporter in Europe[210] (representing 20% of the EU's agricultural production)[211] and the world's third biggest exporter of agricultural products. The only other countries having similar units are Spain (the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio, was founded in 1920) and Luxembourg (foreigners can serve in the National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish). In the 1960s, the elitist "Haute couture" came under criticism from France's youth culture. Premier constat, il ressort de ce deuxième volet que les mots les plus employés pour décrire la France d'aujourd'hui sont bien différents de ceux cités en 2016, avant l'année électorale. Il est noir, marron et blanc 5. [357][358], After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although it was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such buildings as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse. Comment décrire quelqu'un en français ? [71] From 1942 to 1944, about 160,000 French citizens, including around 75,000 Jews,[72][73][74] were deported to death camps and concentration camps in Germany and occupied Poland. "War making and state making as organized crime," in Bringing the State Back In, eds P.B. Parlez-vous French? The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance. "90.07.06: The Aerospace Industry: Its History and How it Affects the U.S. Economy", "La France demeure un fournisseur d'armes de premier plan", The List: Best and Worst Countries for Cybersecurity, "Analysis: Low French borrowing costs risk negative reappraisal", France issues first 10-year bond at negative interest rate, Top 10 Countries with Largest Gold Reserves, The attractiveness of world-class business districts: Paris La Défense vs. its global competitors, "Tourism industry sub-sectors: COUNTRY REPORT – FRANCE". [238] The University of Paris, founded in the mid-12th century, is still one of the most important universities in the Western world. [261][262][263][264] France's fertility rate and crude birth rate nonetheless remain among the highest in the EU. This is due to the country's heavy investment in nuclear power following the 1973 oil crisis,[101] which now accounts for 75 percent of its electricity production[102] and results in less pollution. [374] The first Nobel Prize in Literature was a French author, while France's latest Nobel prize in literature is Patrick Modiano, who was awarded the prize in 2014. One of the first usages of the term can be found in the 1803 Tribunat report, titled Résultats des guerres, des négociations et des traités qui ont préced́é et suivi la coalition contre la France ("Results of the Wars, Negotiations and Treaties that preceded and followed the Coalition against France"). [15][16] It remains a great power in global affairs,[17] being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and an official nuclear-weapon state. TCF … There is no annual registration fee or road tax; however, usage of the mostly privately owned motorways is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes. In the High Middle Ages, France was a highly decentralized feudal kingdom in which the authority of the king was barely felt. The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentino, who both worked in France. France in February 1794 abolished slavery in its American colonies, but would reintroduce it later. In the 20th century, partly as a reaction to the perceived excesses of positivism, French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such as Henri Bergson and it influenced American pragmatism and Whitehead's version of process philosophy. The French nobility played a prominent role in most Crusades to restore Christian access to the Holy Land. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring a Europe of sovereign nations. France was one of the founding members of NATO (1949). During that same century, Charles Perrault was a prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss in Boots, Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty and Bluebeard. Two of the most famous French artists of the time of Baroque era, Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain, lived in Italy. France hosts "the world's biggest annual sporting event", the Tour de France,[454] and other popular sports played in France include: football, judo, tennis,[455] rugby[456] and pétanque. The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) has been ranked by the Nature Index 2020 as the fourth institution with highest share of articles published in scientific journals in the world. Christine Develotte is University Professor in Language Sciences at the École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France. [246] It is also a leader in civilian nuclear technology. The rise of Protestantism in Europe led France to a civil war known as the French Wars of Religion, where, in the most notorious incident, thousands of Huguenots were murdered in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572. The French Parliament is a bicameral legislature comprising a National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) and a Senate. [352] Northern France is the home of some of the most important Gothic cathedrals and basilicas, the first of these being the Saint Denis Basilica (used as the royal necropolis); other important French Gothic cathedrals are Notre-Dame de Chartres and Notre-Dame d'Amiens. In the same year, French companies invested $220 billion outside France, ranking France as the second largest outward direct investor in the OECD, behind the United States ($311 billion), and ahead of the UK ($111 billion), Japan ($128 billion) and Germany ($157 billion). [217], France, especially Paris, has some of the world's largest and most renowned museums, including the Louvre, which is the most visited art museum in the world (5.7 million), the Musée d'Orsay (2.1 million), mostly devoted to Impressionism, and Centre Georges Pompidou (1.2 million), dedicated to contemporary art. Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms); one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years.[135]. [415], The most influential news magazines are the left-wing Le Nouvel Observateur, centrist L'Express and right-wing Le Point (more than 400.000 copies),[416] but the highest circulation for weeklies is reached by TV magazines and by women's magazines, among them Marie Claire and ELLE, which have foreign versions. The latter, in particular, held numerous properties throughout France and by the 13th century were the principal bankers for the French crown, until Philip IV annihilated the order in 1307. Air France is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services. Hartnoll, Phyllis (ed.). [286] In 2005, it was Western Europe's leading recipient of asylum seekers, with an estimated 50,000 applications (albeit 15% decrease from 2004). [37] These cities were built in traditional Roman style, with a forum, a theatre, a circus, an amphitheatre and thermal baths. Metropolitan France covers 551,500 square kilometres (212,935 sq mi),[97] the largest among European Union members. There are also regional languages spoken in France, such as Occitan, Breton, Catalan, Flemish (Dutch dialect), Alsatian (German dialect), Basque, and Corsican. [287] In 2010, France received about 48,100 asylum applications—placing it among the top five asylum recipients in the world[288] and in subsequent years it saw the number of applications increase, ultimately doubling to 100,412 in 2017. [469], The top national football club competition is Ligue 1. French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighboring Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Andorra and Monaco. In 2008, the government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent,[417][418] but in 2009 it had to give 600,000 euros to help the print media cope with the economic crisis, in addition to existing subsidies.[419]. English Español Français . Arrondissements and cantons are merely administrative divisions. Hors d'œuvres could include terrine de saumon au basilic, lobster bisque, foie gras, French onion soup or a croque monsieur. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, ranked France's education as about the OECD average in 2015. At the start of the 19th century, symbolist poetry was an important movement in French literature, with poets such as Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine and Stéphane Mallarmé.[368].

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